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The damage to the blood vessels of the retina is called" Diabetic Retinopathy".
• Diabetic retinopathy can be assessed only by retinal examination.
• Retinal test is different from glasses testing.
• Beware! Early stages of diabetic retinopathy will not produce any sight loss.
• Hence only by retinal examination diabetic retinopathy can be diagnosed.
• Retinal examination should be done once a year
Having diabetes or prediabetes puts you at increased risk for heart disease and stroke. You can lower your risk by keeping your blood glucose (also called blood sugar), blood pressure, and blood cholesterol close to the recommended target numbersthe levels suggested by diabetes experts for good health. (For more information about target numbers for people with diabetes, see "How will I know whether I have heart disease?") Reaching your targets also can help prevent narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels in your legs, a condition called peripheral arterial disease. You can reach your targets by
-choosing foods wisely
-being physically active
-taking medications if needed
If you have already had a heart attack or a stroke, taking care of yourself can help prevent future health problems.
If you have diabetes, you are at least twice as likely as someone who does not have diabetes to have heart disease or a stroke. People with diabetes also tend to develop heart disease or have strokes at an earlier age than other people. If you are middle-aged and have type 2 diabetes, some studies suggest that your chance of having a heart attack is as high as someone without diabetes who has already had one heart attack. Women who have not gone through menopause usually have less risk of heart disease than men of the same age. But women of all ages with diabetes have an increased risk of heart disease because diabetes cancels out the protective effects of being a woman in her child-bearing years.
Diabetes is one of the most common systemic disease to affect the KIDNEY
Why Kidney damage?
Small blood vessels in the kidney filter out the waste products from the body. High blood pressure and high blood sugar can damage these vessels thereby they will not be able to do their functions effectively. Stages of diabetic kidney damage:
In the beginning stages of kidney damage, traces of protein also called 'albumin' begins to appear in the urine. This stage is called MICROALBUMINURIA. Early kidney damage has no symptoms and can be treated with diet and medicines and is reversable. As the kidney damage gets worse, large amounts of protein can be detected in the urine which is called as the stage of PROTEINURIA or overt nephropathy. By this stage, the damage is often irreversable in most cases. Finally the stage of renal failure sets which can rapidly progress to End stage Renal Disease which requires either Dialysis or Transplantation to sustain life.
How to look after your feet?
• 1. Keep feet clean - wash them regularly.
• 2. Use only lukewarm water - no hot water, heating pads, hot water bottles, iodine or alcohol.
• 3. Keep the feet dry - especially between toes-use unscented lotion or cream to keep skin soft.
• 4. Use only medicines recommended by your doctor or chiropodist (podiatrist).
• 5. Cut toe nails straight across, not deep into the corners to help avoid ingrown toe nails.
• 6. Never use razors, knives or corn caps to remove corns.
• 7. Wear shoes or slippers at all times -never walk bare foot even at home.
• 8. Wear good fitting shoes/slippers - not tight or wornout ones. Boots should be used only for short periods.
• 9. Check your feet daily and see your doctor or chiropodist immediately about foot problems
How to self examine your feet?
o 1. Sit on a bed or comfortable flat surface with legs drawn close to your body o 2. Hold a big size mirror beneath your feet 6 - 12 inches away. LOOK FOR:
o Any cracks
o Peeling of the skin
o Abnormally dry skin
o Colour change in any area
o Any wound that has occurred
o Any shiny appearance on the feet.
Feel your feet with your hands for:
• 1. Abnormally cold feet
• 2. Any thickening of skin in the soles, especially beneath the big toe
• 3. Any protruding bone beneath the feet
• 4. Any change in the shape of the feet
• 5. Swelling of the feet
• 6. Localised redness or warmth of the feet.
• 7. Ulcers or wounds.
Inform your doctor if any of the above are present!
Your Weight and Diabetes
Diabetes is a group of disorders characterized by chronic high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to the body's failure to produce any or enough insulin to regulate high glucose levels. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, which often occurs in children or adolescents, is caused by the body's inability to make insulin or type 2 diabetes, which occurs as a result of the body's inability to react properly to insulin (insulin resistance). Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent than type 1 diabetes and is therefore seen in roughly 90% of all diabetes cases. Type 2 diabetes is predominantly diagnosed after the age of forty, however, it is now being found in all age ranges, including children and adolescents.
How does my weight relate to type 2 diabetes?
There are many risk factors for type 2 diabetes such as age, race, pregnancy, stress, certain medications, genetics or family history, high cholesterol and obesity. However, the single best predictor of type 2 diabetes is overweight or obesity.